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Makers Of The World's Smallest Machines Win Nobel Prize
2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry is shared by three scientists (CCSS Level: Grade 7, Words: 321)
Oct 11, 2016 Science & Technology
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The 2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been awarded for the development of the world's smallest machines. Three scientists, Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Fraser Stoddart and Bernard Feringa will share the prize of 8 million kroner (which is around 8 million Chinese yuan).

The tiny machines the three scientists developed are made with individual molecules and are around a thousand times thinner than a human hair. Working at this small scale is called nanotechnology. These nano machines are small enough to be injected into the human body, to do jobs like delivering medicine or treatment right to the place where it is needed. The machines could also be used to make new smart materials. The prize winners managed to put molecules together at a tiny scale to design motors, a four-wheel-drive car and even muscles.

Bernard Feringa's team works in the Netherlands. In 1999, Prof Feringa led the first research to produce a molecular motor that always spins in the same direction. In 2011, his group built a four-wheel-drive nanocar. The car's body is a molecule that holds together four motors that work as wheels.

Speaking about the award, Professor Feringa said "I feel a little bit like the Wright Brothers who were flying 100 years ago for the first time and people were saying why do we need a flying machine, and now we have a Boeing 747 and an Airbus. The opportunities are great."

Jean-Pierre Sauvage is a professor at the University of Strasbourg and a director at the French National Centre for Scientific Research. In 1994, Prof Sauvage's research group were able to make one molecule spin around another when energy was applied. They had made a molecular motor.

Sir Fraser Stoddart is from Edinburgh in the UK. He works at Northwestern University, in the US. His team has built many molecular machines, including a lift, a muscle and even a computer chip.

The Nobel prize mentioned in the article was awarded in the field of…
Physics
Literature
Peace
Chemistry
Smart materials are able to change their properties, depending on their environment. Which of the following is NOT a smart material?
Sunglasses that darken when the sunlight gets brighter
Materials that get shorter when electricity is applied to them
A microwave oven cooking food with an electronic controller
A food package that changes color at different temperatures
How many years ago did Professor Sauvage make his first molecular motor?
22 years
32 years
last year
1999
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aid

help


n,v.援助

an-oth-er

in addition to


pn.另一个

a-ward

a prize in honor of something special


v,n.奖

a-war-ded

given


v,授予

de-li-ver

bring and hand over goods


v.交付

de-ve-loped

cause something to grow or go into production    


v.研发

di-rec-tion

a course along which something moves


n.方向

di-rec-tor

a person in charge of a company, movie or play


n.董事

e-ner-gy

strength needed to get stuff done


n.精力/能源

in-clu-ding

containing, having as part of the whole


prep.包含

in-di-vi-dual

single, one


adj.个人/个体

in-jec-ted

forced a medicine etc into a body through a needle


v.注射

liv-er

the largest organ in the body, which breaks down and detoxifies substances


n.肝

ma-te-ri-als

the matter from which things can be made


n.物料

mo-le-cule

the smallest part of a chemical


n.分子

mo-le-cules

the smallest parts of a chemical


n.分子

op-por-tu-ni-ties

chances for something good to happen


n.机会

pro-fes-sor

teacher at a university


n.教授

re-search

looking for knowledge


v.调研

scale

the size of something


n.规模

sci-en-ti-fic

based on the methods and principles of science


adv.科学

sci-en-tists

experts in science, people who study science


n.科学家

tech-no-lo-gy

machinery developed from scientific knowledge


n.技术

treat-ment

the giving of medicine or surgery


n.治疗